Thursday, December 15, 2011

DRDO Projects-Missile systems


Missile systems

Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP)

The IGMDP was launched by the Indian Government to develop a local missile design and development ability, and manufacture a range of missile systems for the three defence services.
The IGMDP has seen significant success in its two most important constituents- the Agni missile and the Prithvi missile systems, while two other programs, the Akash SAMand the anti-tank Nag Missile have seen significant orders. The Trishul missile, a program to develop a tri-service short range SAM faced persistent problems throughout its development, and was shut down in 2007.
IGMDP ballistic missiles
  • Prithvi: The Prithvi missile are a range of SRBMs produced for the Indian Air Force and Army; a variant for the Navy has been deployed on Sukanya class patrol vessel. Another submarine launched variant known as the K-15 is under development. The Prithvi is an extremely accurate liquid fuelled missile with a range of up to 350 km. While relatively inexpensive and accurate, with a good payload, its logistics footprint is high, on account of it being liquid fuelled.
The Agni-II missile
  • Agni missiles: The Agni are a range of MRBMs, IRBMs, ICBM meant for long range deterrence. The Agni-III is the newest version and has the longest range of up to 5,500 km (3,418 mi). The Agni-I and Agni-II have been productionized, although exact numbers remain classified.
First trials of the Agni-III saw problems and the missile test did not meet its objectives. The second test was successful.Further tests of the Agni-III are planned to validate the missile and its subsystems, which include new propellant and guidance systems, a new re-entry vehicle and other improvements.
Akash SAM
The Akash ( Sky in English) is a medium range surface to air missile system consisting of the command guided ramjet powered Akash along with the dedicated service specific launchers, battery control radar (the Rajendra Block III), a Central Acquisition radar, battery and group control centers. The Akash project has yielded spinoffs like the Central Acquisition radar and Weapon Locating radar.
The Akash system cleared its user trials with the Indian Air Force in 2007. The user trials had the Akash intercept flying targets at ITR, Chandipur. The Akash missile successfully hit its targets in all of the tests. The Indian Air force has since been satisfied with the performance of the missile and ordered two squadrons of the Akash, with a squadron having eight launchers
The Indian Air Force placed an order for an additional six squadrons of the Akash SAM in 2010, with an order of 750 missiles (125 per squadron).This order makes a total of a 1000 Akash SAMs on order for the Indian Air Force for eight squadrons.
In June 2010, the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) placed an order of the Akash missile system, valued at INR12,500 crore (US$2.4 billion). Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL) will be the system integrator and nodal production agency for the Akash Army variant.
Trishul SAM
The Trishul (Trident in English) is a short range SAM meant for the Indian Army, Air Force and Navy. The Trishul project relied on equipment already in service with the Indian services, to drive down logistics costs, and reduce program development costs and development time. The Army variant, relied on a locally modified variant of the Signaal (now Thales) Flycatcher radar, integrated into a single launcher with a four missile pack, along with separate electronics for missile guidance. The Air Force variant separated the missile launchers on Kolos Tatra trucks, locally manufactured by India's BEML. The Naval variant was the most ambitious, with a flight control system with an integrated radar altimeter to intercept sea skimming missiles. The Trishul's guidance was Command Line of Sight with a three beam guidance system, which proved to be the bane of the project and caused repeated failures during trials.
Due to the Trishul's persistent development problems the Indian Air Force, the Indian Army and the Indian Navy began upgrading their existing short range SAM systems or purchasing replacements.The Indian Air Force has since procured batteries of the SPYDER SAM system and the Indian Army is upgrading its OSA-AKM/ SA-8 systems with Polish assistance. The Indian Navy has also moved on to the Barak SAM system.
The Trishul program was effectively closed down in 2006 It has been reported that key technologies developed in the program may be utilized in future systems. It has been reported that the experience gained from the Trishul program will be utilized for a brand new SAM known as the Maitri, which will be codeveloped with the European MBDA missile agency.
Nag anti-tank missile
The Nag Anti-tank guided missile (Snake in English) is a guided missile system intended for the Indian Air Force and the Indian Army. The Army will deploy the Nag on ground based launchers and from helicopters, whereas the Air Force will rely on helicopter based units. The Nag has an Imaging Infrared (IIR) seeker and has a top and direct attack capability, with a tandem warhead.
The Army's land missile carrier and launcher,known as the Namica carries several ready to use Nag missiles within, and four Nag missiles in an extendable launcher above the turret. The Namica has its own FLIR based sighting and fire control unit.
The Air Force and Army will also use their Advanced Light helicopters (HAL Dhruv) and the LCH (HAL Light Combat Helicopter) as Nag carriers. The ALH's will be equipped with IRDE (DRDO) developed HELITIS (Heliborne Imaging and Targeting systems) with a combination of a FLIR, Laser range finder, in a stabilized turret for target acquisition and designation. The thermal imager is likely to be imported, but the gimballed turret, stabilization, laser range finder and associated electronics have been designed in India and will be manufactured locally.
The Nag ATGM is regarded as a highly capable missile, even though its development has been protracted, mainly due to the technological challenges of developing a state of the art, IIR sensor equipped top attack missile The Nag is still cheaper than most imported missiles in its category and is earmarked for the Army and Air Force.
The Nag anti-tank guided missile was cleared for production in July 2009 and there are uncorroborated reports since that it may be purchased by Tanzania, Botswana and Morocco. The Nag will complement the existing Russian 9M113 Konkurs Anti-tank guided missile and European missile MILAN,in Indian usage both of which are manufactured under license by Bharat Dynamics Limited.

Brahmos missile

Launched as a joint venture between India's DRDO and the Russian NPO, the BrahMos program aims at creating a range of missile systems derived from the Yakhont missile system. Named the "BrahMos" after the Brahmaputra and the Moskva rivers, the project has been highly successful.
The Indian Navy has ordered the BrahMos Naval version, both slant launched and vertically launched, for its ships, with the Indian Army ordering two regiments worth of Land launched missiles for long range strike, and an air launched version is in development for the Indian Air Force's Su-30 MKI's and the Navy's Tu-142 long range aircraft.
The DRDO has been responsible for the Navigational systems on the BrahMos, aspects of its propulsion, airframe and seeker, plus its Fire Control Systems, Mobile Command posts and Transporter Erector Launcher.
The hypersonic Brahmos 2 is to be developed as a follow on to the original Brahmos. The missile would still follow the guidelines of the MTCR but would fly at speeds of 5-7 Mach.
BrahMos I Block-III
An upgraded version of 290- km range BrahMos supersonic cruise missile was successfully test fired by India on 2 December 2010 from Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur off the Orissa coast.
"Block III version of BrahMos with advanced guidance and upgraded software, incorporating high manoeuvres at multiple points and steep dive from high altitude was flight tested successfully from Launch Complex III of ITR," its Director S P Dash said after the test fire from a mobile launcher at 1100 hours. The 8.4 meter missile which can fly at 2.8 times the speed of sound is capable of carrying conventional warheads of up to 300 kg for a range of 290 km.
It can effectively engage ground targets from an altitude as low as 10 meters for surgical strikes at terror training camps across the border without causing collateral damage. BrahMos is capable of being launched from multiple platforms like submarine, ship, aircraft and land based Mobile Autonomous Launchers (MAL).The Block III BrahMos , has the capability scaling Mountain Terrains & hence can play a vital role in precision strike in the northern territories. The advanced cruise missile can fly close to the rough geographies and kill the target A five year development timeframe is anticipated.

Shaurya

The Shaurya missile is speculated to be the land version of the submarine launched K-15 Sagarika missile, although DRDO officials have reportedly denied its connection with the K-15 program. Similar to the BrahMos, Shaurya is stored in a composite canister, which makes it much easier to store for long periods without maintenance as well as to handle and transport. It also houses the gas generator to eject the missile from the canister before its solid propellant motors take over to hurl it at the intended target.
Shaurya missiles can remain hidden or camouflaged in underground silos from enemy surveillance or satellites till they are fired from the special storage-cum-launch canisters.The Shaurya system will require some more tests before it becomes fully operational in two-three years. Moreover, defense scientists say the high-speed, two-stage Shaurya has high maneuverability which also makes it less vulnerable to existing anti-missile defence systems.
It can be easily transported by road. The missile, encased in a canister, is mounted on a single vehicle, which has only a driver’s cabin, and the vehicle itself is the launch platform. This “single vehicle solution” reduces its signature – it cannot be easily detected by satellites – and makes its deployment easy.The gas generator, located at the bottom of the canister produces high pressure gas, which expands and ejects the missile from the tube.
The centerpiece of a host of new technologies incorporated in Shaurya is its ring laser gyroscope and accelerometer. The indigenous ring laser gyroscope, a sophisticated navigation and guidance system developed by the Research Center Imarat (RCI) based in Hyderabad, is a highly classified technology.
In Shaurya test flights the RLG functioned exceptionally well. Its job is to monitor the missile’s position in space when it is flying. The missile’s on board computer will use this information on the missile’s actual position to compare it with the desired position. Based on the difference between the missile’s actual and desired positions, the computer will decide on the optimum path and actuators will command the missile to fly in its desired/targeted position. 3rd test successful on 24 September 2011. reached the speed of 7.5 mach. now, out for production.

Sagarika

The K-15 Sagarika(Sanskrit: सागरिका, Sāgarikā "Oceanic") is a nuclear-capable submarine-launched ballistic missile with a range of 750 kilometres (466 mi).Sagarika can carry a payload of up to 500 kilograms (1,102 lb). Sagarika was developed at the DRDO’s missile complex in Hyderabad.
This missile will form part of the triad in India's nuclear deterrence, and will provide retaliatory nuclear strike capability. The development of this missile (under the title Project K-15) started in 1991. The Indian government first confirmed Sagarika's development seven years later (1998), when the then Defence Minister, George Fernandes, announced it during a press conference.
The development of the underwater missile launcher, known as Project 420 (P420), was completed in 2001 and handed over to the Indian Navy for trials. The missile was successfully test fired six times, and tested to its full range up to three times. The test of missile from a submerged pontoon was conducted in February 2008.
Sagarika is being integrated with India's nuclear-powered Arihant class submarine that began sea trials on the 26th of July 2009.
India also successfully developed a land based variant of Sagarika, known as Shaurya which can be stored in underground silos for longer time and can be launched using gas canisters as booster.
Sudarshan
India's first laser guided bomb The missile, Sudarshan, is the latest weapon system developed indigenously to occupy the niche of a precision delivery mechanism. It can neutralise any target in a 800-1,000 km range with a zero margin of error.
Developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment, Bangalore, Sudarshan is a versatile missile that can be used by the army, navy and air force.

Prahaar Missile

Prahaar is a solid-fueled surface-to-surface guided short-range tactical ballistic missile by DRDO of India. It would be equipped with omni-directional warheads and could be used for hitting both tactical and strategic targetsIt has a range of about 150 km.It was test-fired successfully on 21 July 2011 from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur.

Plans

Long range SAM

India and Israel have worked out an agreement to develop and produce the long-range Barak air defence system for both the Indian and the Israeli militaries. The initial co-development funding is about US$350 million, of which IAI will finance 50 per cent. The venture is a tripartite one, between the DRDO, the Indian Navy, and IAI. The missile is referred to as the LRSAM in Indian Government literature, and will have a range of 72 km (45 mi). Israel Aircraft Industries refers to the system as Barak-8. IAI states that the missile will have a dual pulse motor, is vertically launched and is able to engage both aircraft and sea skimming missiles. It has a fully active seeker, and the Barak-8 Weapons system is capable of multiple simultaneous engagements. It will have a two way datalink for midcourse update, as well as be able to integrate into larger C3I networks. The primary fire control sensor for the naval Barak-8/LRSAM will be the ELTA MF-STAR Naval AESA radar which Israel claims to be superior to many existing systems worldwide. The dual pulse rocket motor for the SAM was developed by DRDO, and the prototypes were supplied to IAI for integration with IAI systems to develop the complete missile.
The other variant of the LRSAM will be fielded by the Indian Air Force.Along with the Akash SAM, the LRSAM fills a longer range requirement and both types will complement each other.Each unit of the MR-SAM, would consist of a command and control center, with an acquisition radar, a guidance radar, and 3 launchers with eight missiles each.
A 4-year, US$300 million System Design & Development phase to develop unique system elements and an initial tranche of the land-based missiles is estimated. The radars, C2 centers, TEL's and missiles will be codeveloped by Israel and India. In turn, IAI and its Israeli partners have agreed to transfer all relevant technologies and manufacturing capabilities to India allowing India to manufacture the LRSAM systems locally as well as support them.  The Barak-8 next generation long range surface to air missile (LR-SAM) had its first test-flight on 29 May 2010.

Astra BVRAAM

Astra is a 80 km (50 mi) class, active radar guided missile meant for beyond visual range air to air combat. Several tests of the missiles basic propulsion and guidance have taken place from land based launchers. Air launched trials will follow thereafter.
Light weight launcher
DRDO has developed an indigenous 7 kg lightweight rocket launcher for Indian army which will replace the 14 kg Carl Gustav Mark-II launcher which is much heavier than DRDO developed rocket launcher.The DRDO has made extensive use of composites in its construction, resulting in the reduced weight.

Anti-Ballistic Missile Defence Project

Unveiled in 2006, the ABM project was a surprise to many observers. While DRDO had revealed some details about the project over the years, its progress had been marked by strict secrecy, and the project itself was unlisted, and not visible among DRDO's other programs. The ABM project has benefited from all the incremental improvements achieved by the DRDO and its associated industrial partners via the long-running and often contentious Akash missile and Trishul missile programs. However, it is a completely new program, with much larger scope and with predominantly new subsystems.
The ABM project has two missiles—namely the AAD (Advanced Air Defence) and PAD (Prithvi Air Defence) missiles. The former is an endo-atmospheric interceptor of new design, which can intercept targets to a height of 30 km (19 mi). Whereas the latter is a modified Prithvi missile, dubbed the Axo-atmospheric interceptor (AXO) with a dedicated second stage kill vehicle for ballistic missile interception, up to an altitude of 80 km (50 mi).
Both these missiles are cued by an active phased array Long Range Tracking Radar, similar to the Elta GreenPine but made with locally developed components, which include DRDO developed transmit/receive modules. The ABM system also makes use of a second radar, known as the Multi-Function Control Radar which assists the LRTR in classifying the target, and can also act as the fire control radar for the AAD missile. The MFCR,like the LRTR is an active phased array system.
The entire system was tested in November 2006, under the Prithvi Air Defence Exercise, when a prototype AXO missile,successfully intercepted another Prithvi missile at a height of 50 km (31 mi).This test was preceded by an "electronic test" in which an actual target missile was launched, but the entire interceptor system was tested electronically, albeit no actual interceptor was launched. This test was successful in its entirety.
The AAD Missile was tested on December 2007 which successfully intercepted a modified Prithvi missile simulating the M-9 and M-11 class of ballistic missiles. Interception happened at an altitude of 15 km (9 mi).

GATET engine

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has launched a INR100 crore (US$19 million) project in R&D in the area of gas turbines,a DRDO official said on April 2010.Under the initiative of DRDO's Aeronautics Research and Development Board, R&D projects, which need investment in the region of INR50 lakh (US$95,000) to INR5 crore (US$1 million), would be considered for funding.GTRE was the nodal agency to spearhead this venture,called GATET

ICBM named "Agni-V"

The Agni-V missile is a ICBM meant for long range deterrence. The Agni-V is the newest version and has the longest range of up to 5000–6000 km. Agni-V will be able to carry multiple warheads and will have countermeasures against Anti-ballistic missile systems.The design of the missile is completed and the first test is expected in the last quarter of 2011. The missile will utilize a canister and will be launched from it. Sixty percent of the missile will be similar to the Agni-III missile. Advanced technologies like ring laser gyroscope and accelerometer will be used in the new missile.

Anti-satellite weapon

India had identified development of ASAT weapons "for electronic or physical destruction of satellites in both LEO (2,000-km altitude above earth's surface) and the highergeosynchronous orbit" as a thrust area in its long-term integrated perspective plan (2012–2027) under the management of DRDO.

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